What are nouns?

They are words used to name things; they name people, places, objects, concepts, ideas and they identify the who/what in a sentence.

We always go to the park.
I like butterflies.

First, you need to understand what plural and singular nouns are.

What are singular nouns and plural nouns?

Singular nouns are those that refer to only one thing.

I want an apple.
He needs a hug.
The concert is tomorrow.

Plural nouns are those that refer to more than one thing.

Spelling rules for plural nouns

1-The majority of plural nouns have β€˜-s’ at the end of the singular noun.

Computer = Computers
Bottle = Bottles
Notebook = Notebooks

2-There are nouns that end in β€˜-s, -ch, -sh, -x, -z’; you add β€˜-es’ to the noun.

Glass = Glasses
Beach = Beaches
Class = Classes
Fox = Foxes
Buzz = Buzzes (the β€˜z’ is doubled)

3-You add β€˜-ies’ to a word that has a consonant before β€˜-y’ and you delete the β€˜-y’.

Puppy = Puppies
Bakery = Bakeries
Army = Armies

But, if the word has a vowel before β€˜-y’, you leave the β€˜-y’ and add β€˜-s’.

Survey = Surveys
Essay = Essays
Key = Keys

4-There are nouns that end in β€˜-f’ or β€˜-fe’; you delete β€˜-f’ / β€˜-fe’ and add β€˜-ves’.

Life = Lives
Loaf = Loaves
Thief = Thieves

5-There are nouns that do not follow the previous rule; those nouns end in β€˜-oof, -ief, -rf’ and you add β€˜-s’ to them.

Roof = Roofs
Chef = Chefs
Chief = Chiefs

6-You add β€˜-es’ to a word that has a consonant before β€˜-o’.

Domino = Dominoes
Mosquito = Mosquitoes
Hero = Heroes

But, if the word has a vowel before β€˜-o’, you only add β€˜-s’ to them.

Video = Videos
Portfolio = Portfolios
Cameo = Cameos

Irregular plural nouns need to be learned by heart.

Tooth = Teeth
Goose = Geese
Woman = Women

Although some irregular plural nouns follow some rules:

1-There are words that end in β€˜-on’; you add β€˜-a’ to them.

Criterion = Criteria
Curriculum = Curricula
Lexicon = Lexica

2-There are words that end in β€˜-us’. You add β€˜-i’ to them.

Fungus = Fungi
Syllabus = Syllabi
Stimulus = Stimuli

3-There are words that end in β€˜-is’. You add β€˜-es’ to them.

Thesis = Theses
Parenthesis = Parentheses
Diagnosis = Diagnoses

Other considerations

Some singular and plural nouns are the same.


There are plural nouns that do not have singular form.


There are words that may seem like plural nouns, but they are not: linguistics, athletics, diabetes, news.

There are 9 types of nouns. To read more information about them click here.

Read more about the other parts of speech: